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本文摘要:The hospital room may be due for a checkup. 医院病房也许该做到一次检查了。

The hospital room may be due for a checkup. 医院病房也许该做到一次检查了。Doctors and nurses, architects and designers all say the room setting has an important but largely neglected role to play in the delivery of quality care and outcomes. 医生和护士、建筑师和设计师都说道,病房环境对于优质护理与优质医疗结果的达成协议充分发挥着最重要的起到,然而这种起到基本上都是被忽略了的。Consider infections. One out of every 20 patients admitted to a hospital picks up an infection while there, according the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These infections can be serious and deadly, and they cost the U.S. $10 billion a year. 以病毒感染为事例。


据美国疾病掌控与防治中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)数据,在美国,每20个入院病人就有一人在住院期间病毒感染某种疾病。这些疾病有可能是相当严重而可怕的,每年为此代价的代价高达100亿美元。

But recent studies indicate that at least half can be avoided. And the design of patient rooms is one of the best places to start. 但近期研究指出,最少一半的病毒感染是可以防止的。病房的设计是最佳切入点之一。

The hospital room has changed little since the post-World War II years, when there was a shift to semiprivate rooms from wards. But even then, the patient wasnt central to the plan. Now, the patient room of the future is being designed as a safe, private, comfortable place conducive to healing. 二战之后的那些年里,多人共用的大病房被相继改回二到四人共用的半偷窥病房,之后基本上就没变化。然而即便在当时,病房的改建也不是环绕病人而进行的。如今,未来的病房正在被设计成一个安全性、偷窥、舒适度、不利于康复的地方。

With all the knowledge weve gained, says Douglas Wood, director of the Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation, we can increasingly create an environment in the hospital to minimize the transmission of bacteria, increase the circulation of air, and reduce pain, discomfort and poor clinical outcomes. 梅奥医院(Mayo Clinic)创意研究中心主任道格拉斯伍德(Douglas Wood)说道:“利用我们早已得知的各种科学知识,我们更加有能力在医院里面打造出一种最大化减少细菌传播,减少空气循环,增加疼痛、呼吸困难和劣质医疗结果的环境。”Hospital officials from across the U.S. and abroad have traveled to New York to see the prototype patient room shown here. Designed by NXT Health, a nonprofit in New York, and funded by the Department of Defense, the room is designed to reduce infections, falls, errors -- and ultimately costs. Heres a look at how it would do so. 全美各地以及美国国外都有医院管理人员前往纽约参观本文右图的这间样板病房。

这间病房由纽约非营利的组织NXT Health设计、美国国防部资助,其出发点是增加病毒感染、跌倒和差错――最后就是增加要代价的代价。让我们大约理解一下它是怎样构建这些目标的。1. Patient Ribbon 1“病人环带”The canopy above the bed, the patient ribbon, extends from the head wall to the footwall. It contains electrical, technological and gas components normally found in any hospital room. It also includes a sound system that can create a cocoon above the patients head to block out unwanted noise and minimize the transmission of noise to other areas of the room. 病床上方的顶盖“病人环带”(Patient Ribbon)从床头墙仍然伸延到床尾墙,包括普通病房里面一般都有的电子、技术及气体设备。

它还有一个声音系统,可以在病人头部上方构成一个“茧”,一方面屏蔽掉无聊的噪音,另一方面也最大化地减少传遍病房其他区域的噪音。2. Halo Lightbox 2. 暗轮灯箱The halo lightbox in the patient ribbon above the bed can be programmed for mood or light therapy, and can simulate cloud movements, blue skies and other lighting conditions. 八边形在病床上方病人环带里的暗轮灯箱可以通过编程打造出特定氛围或用作灯光理疗,也可以仿真浮云、蓝天和其他一些光线环境。

3. Head Wall 3. 床头墙The head wall contains the equipment needed to check vital signs (heartbeat, breathing rate, temperature and blood pressure), as well as oxygen and other supplies, all stowed neatly out of sight but easily accessible through pull-down panels in the wall. 床头墙包括一台用作检查关键指标(跳动、排便频率、体温和血压)的设备,以及氧气和其他物资供给设备。这一切都规整地金属制一起会被看见,但可以通过床头墙内的下拉式面板精彩调用。4. Footwall 4. 床尾墙The footwall contains a large screen that can be used for entertainment, video consultations with doctors, and access to hospital information, educational content and social-media sites. Its controlled from the bed by a tablet computer that allows the patient to adjust lighting, sound, and temperature. 床尾墙包括一个大屏幕,可以用作娱乐、通过视频咨询医生,也可以用来采访医院信息、教育内容和社交网站。

病人在病床上通过一台平板电脑来对其展开掌控。这台电脑还容许病人调节光线、声音和温度。5. Rubber Floors 5. 橡胶地板The floors are made of low-porosity rubber, which doesnt contain or need chemical sealers or waxes that often trap bacteria and other substances that can cause infections and allergic reaction. Rubber is quieter, softer and less slippery than other traditional floor materials. In case of a fall, it reduces impact. 地面由细孔橡胶砖成,不包括也不必须化学密封材料或蜡油,因为这些东西经常不会藏纳细菌等物质,有可能引发病毒感染和过敏反应。

橡胶比其他传统地面材料要安静、坚硬、减震。在再次发生跌倒的情况下,还可以减低冲击。6. Room Surfaces 6. 室内表面All surfaces in the room other than the floor are made of Corian or similar solid-surface materials commonly found in homes as kitchen countertops. The material is nonporous and seamless, making it easy to clean and minimizing the chances for mold, mildew or bacteria to grow. That all reduces the risk of infection. 室内除了地面以外的其他表面都使用可丽耐热人造石(Corian)和其他常用不作住宅厨房台面的硬表面材料。这些材料无孔无缝,更容易洗手,并将腐烂、生长细菌的概率最小化。

这些都会减少病毒感染风险。7. Entry Workstation 7. 入口工作站The workstation is located at the entrance to the patient room. As a staff member or other person enters, the sink lights up in red to indicate that hands should be washed. When hands are disinfected, a green light blinks. A dashboard in the wall stores a computer, where information on the patient can be found and entered. 这个工作站坐落于病房入口。当医院人员或其他人员转入的时候,洗手台就不会指示灯红灯,回应必须洗澡。


双手消完毒之后,就不会有绿灯闪光。墙面上的一个仪表板敲了一台电脑,可以查询、载入病人的资料。8. Bedside Caregiver Hub 8. 床边护理中心At the bedside caregiver hub, a wall panel holds another computer. Other technology is embedded in the wall, and when the panel is closed, ultraviolet light kills bacteria that might have formed on surfaces. The computer keyboard, like all others in the room, is a flat, nonporous typing surface thats easy and quick to clean, unlike conventional keyboards, which can harbor bacteria. 床边护理中心的一个墙面面板容纳了另外一台电脑。墙面还植入了其他一些技术,当面板重开的时候,就不会有紫外线杀菌各处表面上有可能早已构成的细菌。

电脑键盘和病房内的其他所有键盘一样,都是一个平缓无孔的输出表面,洗手一起方便快捷,不像常规键盘那样可能会藏纳细菌。9. Patient Companion 9. 病人伴侣The mobile patient companion contains both an eating surface and a flat computer when flipped over. Operated by touch, the computer controls the screen on the footwall and the light and sound in the patient area. The surface has colored rings to indicate when power is low and icons to touch to call for help. 移动式病人伴侣包括一个用餐平面,翻过来就是一台平板电脑。